Minimizing the maximum expected sample size in two-stage phase II clinical trials with continuous outcomes


Two-stage designs are commonly used for Phase II trials. Optimal two-stage designs have the lowest expected sample size for a specific treatment effect, for example, the null value, but can perform poorly if the true treatment effect differs. Here we introduce a design for continuous treatment responses that minimizes the maximum expected sample size across all possible treatment effects. The proposed design performs well for a wider range of treatment effects and so is useful for Phase II trials. We compare the design to a previously used optimal design and show it has superior expected sample size properties.

Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics 2012; 22(4):836-852